Statistics is written in clear, everyday language, without the equations that sometimes baffle non-mathematical readers. The goal is teaching students how to think about statistical issues. Techniques are introduced through examples, showing how statistics has helped solve major problems in political science, psychology, genetics, medicine, and other fields.
Statistics in unusual in its emphasis on the models that underlie statistical inference. The authors make the models comprehensible and show why choosing the wrong model can lead students astray. Carefully constructed exercises in every chapter offer practice in computational skills. Other call for rough estimates and qualitative judgments, so students are forced to come to grips with the concepts instead of mechanically applied formulas. Most sections close with an exercise set; the answers are in the back of the book, often with complete solutions. Chapters also have review exercises, without answers, for homework and tests. Illustrations are in integral part of the exposition. Beginners learn how to read histograms and scatterplots and how to think about these graphics in the context of real problems. Working drawings are all done freehand; students are encouraged to make similar sketches and are not intimidated by too much precision.
Tables of Contents:-
Part I Design of Experiments
Chapter 1. Controlled Experiments: The Salk Vaccine Field Trial
The Portacaval Shunt
Historical Controls
Summary
Chapter 2. Observational Studies
Introduction
The Clofibrate Trial
More Examples
Sex Bias in Graduate Admissions
Confounding
Review Exercises
Summary and Overview
Part II Descriptive Statistics
Chapter 3. The Histogram
Introduction
Drawing a Histogram
The Density Scale
Variables
Controlling for a Variable
Cross-Tabulation
Selective Breeding
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 4. The Average and the Standard Deviation
Introduction
The Average
The Average and the Histogram
The Root-Mean-Square
The Standard Deviation
Computing the Standard Deviation
Using a Statistical Calculator
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 5 The Normal Approximation for Data
The Normal Curve
Finding Areas under the Normal Curve
The Normal Approximation for Data
Percentiles
Percentiles and the Normal Curve
Change of Scale
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 6. Measurement Error
Introduction
Chance Error
Outliers
Bias
Review Exercises
Special Review Exercises
Summary and Overview
Chapter 7. Plotting Points and Lines
Reading Points off a Graph
Plotting Points
Slope and Intercept
Plotting Lines
The Algebraic Equation for a Line
Chapter 8. Correlation
The Scatter Diagram
The Correlation Coefficient
The SD Line
Computing the Correlation Coefficient
Review Exercises
Summary
Part III Correlation and Regression
Chapter 9. More about Correlation
Features of the Correlation Coefficient
Changing SDs
Some Exceptional Cases
Ecological Correlations
Association is Not Causation
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 10. Regression
Introduction
The Graph of Averages
The Regression Method for Individuals
The Regression Fallacy
There Are Two Regression Lines
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 11. The R.M.S. Error for Regression
Introduction
Computing the R.M.S. Error
Plotting the Residuals
Looking at Vertical Strips
Using the Normal Curve Inside a Vertical Strip
Review Exercises
Summary
Part IV Probability
Chapter 12. The Regression Line
Slope and Intercept
The Method of Least Squares
Does the Regression Make Sense?
Review Exercises
Summary and Overview
Chapter 13. What Are the Chances?
Introduction
Conditional Probabilities
The Multiplication Rule
Independence
The Collins Case
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 14. More about Chance
Listing the Ways
The Addition Rule
Two FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
The Paradox of the Chevalier De Mere
Are Real Dice Fair?
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 15. The Binomial Formula
Introduction
The Binomial Formula
Review Exercises
Special Review Exercises
Summary and Overview
PART V. Change Variability
Chapter 16. The Law of Averages
What Does the Law of Averages Say?
Chance Processes
The Sum of Draws
Making a Box Model
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 17. The Expected Value and Standard Error
The Expected Value
The Standard Error
Using the Normal Curve
A Short-Cut
Classifying and Counting
Review Exercises
Postscript
Summary
Chapter 18. The Normal Approximation for Probability Histograms
Introduction
Probability Histograms
Probability Histograms and the Normal Curve
The Normal Approximation
The Scope of the Normal Approximation
Conclusion
Review Exercises
Summary
Part VI Sampling
Chapter 19. Sample Surveys
Introduction
The Literary Digest Poll
The Year the Polls Elected Dewey
Using Chance in Survey Work
How Well Do Probability Methods Work?
A Closer Look at the Gallup Poll
Telephone Surveys
Chance Error and Bias
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 20. Chance Errors in Sampling
Introduction
The Expected Value and Standard Error
Using the Normal Curve
The Correction Factor
The Gallup Poll
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 21. The Accuracy of Percentages
Introduction
Confidence Intervals
Interpreting a Confidence Interval
Caveat Emptor
The Gallup Poll
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 22. Measuring Employment and Unemployment
Introduction
The Design of the Current Population Survey
Carrying out the Survey
Weighting the Sample
Standard Errors
The Quality of the Data
Bias
Review Exercises Summary
Chapter 23.The Accuracy of Averages
Introduction
The Sample Average
Which SE?
A Reminder
Review Exercises
Special Review Exercises
Summary and Overview
Part VII Chance Models
Chapter 24. A Model for Measurement Error
Estimating the Accuracy of an Average
Chance Models
The Gauss Model
Conclusion
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 25. Chance Models in Genetics
How Mendel Discovered Genes
Did Mendel’s Facts Fit His Model?
The Law of Regression
An Appreciation of the Model
Review Exercises
Summary and Overview
Part VIII Tests of Significance
Chapter 26 Tests of Significance
Introduction
The Null and the Alternative
Test Statistics and Significance Levels
Making a Test of Significance
Zero-One Boxes
The t-Test
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 27 More Tests for Averages
The Standard Error for a Difference
Comparing Two Sample Averages Experiments
More on Experiments
When Does the z-Test Apply?
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 28. The Chi-Square Test
Introduction
The Structure of the c2-Test
How Fisher Used the c2-Test
Testing Independence
Review Exercises
Summary
Chapter 29. A Closer Look at Tests of Significance
Was the Result Significant?
Data Snooping
Was the Result Important?
The Role of the Model
Does the Difference Prove the Point?
Conclusion
Review Exercises
Special Review Exercises
Summary and Overview
Notes
Answers to Exercises Tables
Index
Book : | Statistics (Fourth Edition) |
Book ID :75289
Author :David Freedman,Robaert Pisani,Roger Purves
ISBN 13 :9788130915876
Year of Publication :2017
Edition :Reprint
Publisher :Viva Books Private Limited
Binding :Softcover
Pages :713
Size :16 x 24 Cms.
Weight :0.904 Kg.